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Research Articles :: The Society of Radiographers :: Trinidad and Tobago

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Title Author Year Country
An Investigation of the Level of Public Awareness of the Adverse Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Health in Trinidad & Tobago
According to the findings of this study, only thirty-six percent (36%) of the respondents were found to have adequate knowledge of the risks associated with x-rays while the majority of the respondents (64%) did not. These results show that the average patient does not know the risks associated with x-rays. It was also found that seventy-two percent (72%) of the respondents answered ‘no’ when asked if they were informed of the risks associated with radiological examinations that require them to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Although these results are not exactly concurrent with the results found by McGarvey (2010) and Semelka (2005) it still shows that the average patient is not being informed of the risks associated with the examinations they are required to undergo. This emphasises the need for doctors and radiological staff to inform patients of the risk associated with x-rays, the precautionary measures that are available to reduce these risks and the various options that are available to them as far as diagnostic procedures are concerned before subjecting them to radiological examinations. This study also investigated the level of awareness of the respondents in relation to the age bracket that the respondents belonged to and the level of education that the respondents acquired. This was done in order to determine whether the awareness of the risk associated with x-rays can be determined by the age and level of education of a patient. According to the study none of the respondents below the age of twenty-five (<25yrs) or above the age of fifty (50yrs>) were found to be adequately aware of the risks associated with radiological examinations. Respondents between the ages of twenty-six to thirty-four (26yrs-34yrs) seemed to be the most aware with the age group thirty-five to forty-nine (35yrs- 49yrs) following as a close second. What may account for these results is the that patients younger than twenty-five may not yet have had education or an occupation that required them to know about the risk of ionizing radiation and may not have been around long enough to encounter such information. On the other hand because higher education was more difficult to attain in the past the patients over fifty may not have been educated enough to know about the risks associated with x-rays. Although it is important to explain the risks versus benefits of these exams to all patients these results suggest that special attention should be paid to the younger patients and the patients that are older than fifty. This may change as time progresses as the respondents who are now within the age brackets that were found to be aware will eventually become fifty thereby making the age bracket of fifty and over more aware. It is my belief however that the people who, in the future, will fit into the age bracket of twenty-five years and under will have the same level of awareness as was found for the respondents that currently fit into that age bracket in this study. This is due to the fact that the number of years the respondents would have lived (25 years for the most) and their exposure to knowledge as far as radiation is concerned may be at the same level as the respondents of age bracket twenty-five and under in this study. These however are only assumptions as no one can account for the future. The level of education of the respondent did seem to have a correlation to the respondent’s level of knowledge of the risks associated with x-rays. It seemed the percent of respondents that were found to be aware was grew the higher the educational status was. It went from zero (0%) of the respondents that had only primary school level education being found adequately aware to sixty percent (60%) of the respondents at tertiary level education having adequate knowledge. This could be due to the fact that in primary school the students are not exposed to that type of physics as it may be considered too advanced. At secondary school level the twenty-seven percent (27%) of respondents that were found to be adequately aware could have been students who studied science subjects. Since collage level education requires a student to study beyond just his or her core subjects and to study current events, contemporary issues and various other liberal arts there is a high possibility that they would gain knowledge of the adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the body and in extension the risks associated with radiological examinations. It has been my observation as a radiography student that healthcare professionals usually use education level to gauge patients and determine how to communicate information to them. Although every patient is an individual and it is important to not come across condescending when communicating with them education level can be a useful tool when determining how to communicate information and how much information one should give as a healthcare professional. According to the findings of this study special care should be taken when informing patients that have only acquired a primary and secondary school level education about the risks associated with x-rays. Conversely it is also important to remember that not all patients of tertiary level education know the risks associated with radiological examinations so one should not just assume that the patient knows because they seem educated. The level of awareness of the female respondents of childbearing age was another area of interest as patients that fit into this demographic need protection more than most other patients. This is due to the fact that female patients of childbearing age may be pregnant and radiation exposure can have harmful effects on an unborn baby. Even if the patient is not pregnant it is still important to protect their ovaries from unnecessary exposure to reduce the chances of complications in the future. The findings of this study showed that more than half the female respondents of childbearing age were not adequately aware of the adverse effects of x-rays on the body. In general females were found to be less aware of the risks associated with radiological examinations than men. Fortunately even though the ladies are not being informed before hand about the risks assoicated with the examinations, according to this study eight-nine percent (89%) of the female respondents of child bearing age answered ‘yes’ when asked if any medical staff ask them if they might possibly be pregnant. Asking a female patient the possibilty of them being pregnant before radiological examinations that require them to be exposed to x-rays is one of the main precaustionary measures. The level of awareness of the respondents was also analyzed by separating the respondents into those who worked in a hospital and those who have never worked in a hospital. As expected the percentage of respondents that were found to be aware of the adverse effects of x-rays and had worked in hospital far surpassed the percentage of respondents that have never worked in a hospital. Hospital staff should be knowledgeable about the risks that these examinations carry since they work in an environment which may require them to be around the radiaiology department or around radiographic equipment.
Phillip Simon2011TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Effective Dose and Cancer Risk Estimates from Diagnostic Computed Tomography Procedures in Jamaica
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Barrington Brevitt; Dr. Peter Johnson; Prof. Mitko Voutchkov2018JAMAICA
Eight Year Interim Results Of A 20- Year Observational Study Of Transrectally Delivered, MRI-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy Of Prostate Cancer In An Outpatient Setting
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Bernadette M. Greenwood; John F. Feller MD; Wes Jones, RT2018UNITED STATES
How To Deal With MRI Artefacts
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Catherine Muchuki2018KENYA
Implementing the Flipped Classroom in Radiation Safety
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Dr. Timmerie Cohen2018UNITED STATES
Implications associated with the implementation of a Computed Radiography System in the Radiology Department of a local Hospital.
For further information regarding discussions and limitations of this article, permission is required from the author. Please contact us at the email addresses below.
Jyoti Priya Deonarine2011TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Inter-Professional Work In Early Detection Of Breast Cancer: An Integrative Review
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Radiotherapy.
Bergliot Strøm2018NORWAY
Interdisciplinary Collaboration In Radiation Oncology
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Radiotherapy.
LeShell Palmer Jones2018UNITED STATES
NATIONAL SURVEY OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY RADIATION DOSES IN NIGERIA
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Computed Tomography
IDRIS GARBA2018NIGERIA
Promotion of improved standards of radiography education through transition management
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Karen Finlay2018AUSTRALIA
Social media: The Future of Formal Professional Development for Medical Radiation Practitioners in Canada and Australia
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Lori Boyd2018AUSTRALIA
STORIES FROM THE FRONTLINE: Identifying challenges and solutions for improper CT Colonography patient preparation using a case study approach
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Tracy Wakeford; Jaqueline Razik; Feng Chen2018CANADA
Test article
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Test author2018TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
The Alberta, Canada Ocular Brachytherapy Program. Utilizing Patient Feedback to Guide Improvement.
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Radiotherapy.
Wendy Read; R. Trafford Crump 2018CANADA
The Development of Critical Thinking in Diagnostic Radiography
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Aarthi Ramlaul2018UNITED KINGDOM
The Purpose Of This Case Study Is To Inform Sonographers On The Diagnosis, Treatment, Ultrasound Appearance, And Outcomes Of Heterotopic Pregnancies.
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Ultrasound
Yonella Demars2018UNITED STATES
The Use of MIYABI Angio-CT For Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Commonly Seen In Emergency
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Computed Tomography
Wei-YaoKao; Chieu-An Liu2018TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA
Ultrasound Safety, Mechanisms of Harm And Possible Side Effects
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Ultrasound
Peters Ehiwe2018TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Use of Digital Storytelling to Teach Evidence Based Breast Imaging to Radiography Students: Translating Reality into Best Practice: A Case Study
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Education Seminar
Cynthia Cowling2018AUSTRALIA
What Should It Look Like?
ISRRT WORLD CONGRESS 2018, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Radiotherapy.
Marcia Smoke MSc, MRT(T), RTT, ACT, Kristin Berry, Emily Ho BMRSc, MRT(T), RT(T), Salman Arif BHSc, BMRSc, MRT(T) & Joseph E. Ha2018CANADA